TBW #42: What ChatGPT has to say about Web3

TBW #42: What ChatGPT has to say about Web3

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🗣 Our exclusive news

🔶 Accreditation PSAN

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What ChatGPT has to say about Web3 🤖

It's impossible for you to have missed out. For the past few weeks, it's been all anyone's been talking about: ChatGPT. People are talking about it at home, at work, in restaurants. Some people even have to talk about it in bed!

With incredible speed, the artificial intelligence-based app has won over tens of millions of people who use it to write articles, make up stories and even... cheat in exams 😅

The speed of adoption and very real nature of ChatGPT - even your grandparents can use it - is a real lesson for the Tech industry and specifically for the Web3 sector.

Although many of them are technically mature, the vast majority of crypto projects are still too complicated to understand and, above all, to use. Yet usage is THE key. ChatGPT exploded in three weeks because it's simple to use. It's even fun, addictive even.

But it would be wrong to be impatient with Web3 and cryptos. Because Rome wasn't built in a day. Artificial intelligence has been a subject of study for over 50 years, while cryptocurrencies, apart from Bitcoin, are not even 10 years old.

The equivalent of a ChatGPT in Web3 will undoubtedly arrive in the next few years. We just have to keep working and, above all, be patient.



👉 Those lending platforms desperate for cash

The recent lull in the markets has done nothing to solve the problem for lending platforms. For those that haven't fallen because of FTX - and there are still plenty of them!" - the urgent need is to find cash to make volume and keep their heads above water.

The only problem is that there aren't many customers. "Volumes are still at very low levels", confirms a player in the sector specialising in staking, a business that has, on the contrary, been on a roll in recent months.

To try and get round the problem, some like FalconX or Nexo, which was also the target of a raid on its Bulgarian offices a few days ago on suspicion of money laundering, are trying to attract other platforms and brokers.

"We have been approached several times to trade with them", confirms a French player, who refused to go so as not to run the risk of finding himself with blocked funds in turn. And he is not the only one, according to our information 🙃


Aggregation: the big challenge facing crypto start-ups

In addition to the economic downturn, obtaining authorisation, the timetable for which could accelerate in France, is a real challenge for many European crypto players.

It's been a long time since the French ecosystem has been so up in arms, to put it mildly! For the past few weeks, some and others have been denouncing in the media and on social networks an "unprecedented" threat to the sector.

The object of this anger?

A proposed law that plans to speed up the timetable on the licensing requirement for French companies operating in crypto, the so-called "PSANs", i.e. "digital asset service providers"!

Today, there are 60 PSANs in France, including Coinhouse, StackinSat, Forge (Société Générale's crypto subsidiary) and the biggest platform on the planet, Binance.

In Europe, there are more than 150, according to our calculations. Italy leads the way with just over 70 PSANs, but the procedure for obtaining them is much more flexible. Germany, on the other hand, has fewer than 10...

As a reminder, the PSAN status granted in France by the Autorité des marchés financiers (AMF) was created in 2019 by the Pacte Act. It provides a framework for players offering crypto services. This status provides for 2 levels:

  • Registration
  • Authorisation

Since 2019, all players who want to operate in France - French or foreign - must register. Accreditation, on the other hand, is only optional. To date, no one has yet obtained it.

Registration makes it possible to check two things: the first is the good repute of the company's directors. "In particular, we check that they have no criminal record," says William O'Rorke, founding partner at ORWL Avocats, a firm that assists several crypto companies with their regulatory procedures.

The second frames the company's anti-money laundering policy and its ability to prevent the financing of terrorism. "This is the real important point of registration," stresses William O'Rorke.

Registered players must demonstrate that they have both a policy and a procedure aimed at combating these illicit activities.

Registration vs approval

PSAN approval, on the other hand, is much more restrictive, and it is precisely for this reason that it has been decided from 2019 to make it optional, until crypto start-ups can adapt to the future legislation. "The idea was to give the ecosystem time to prepare," explains an AMF spokeswoman.

In the meantime, the European Union has taken up the subject. After an intense battle in Brussels, which we have followed week after week, a few months ago it adopted an Old Continent-wide regulatory framework for cryptos: the MiCA (Markets in Crypto-Assets) regulation.

The text must be definitively voted by Parliament next April, if there is no postponement yet, before coming into force in 2024 - and an 18-month adaptation period.

MiCA, which is directly inspired by the French Pacte law, does not cover all crypto topics. DeFi (decentralised finance) and NFTs, for example, are not covered. Like the Pacte law, and other laws in Europe, MiCA almost essentially concerns crypto platforms - and also stablecoins (all the details are here).

Except that things have accelerated sharply in recent months with the FTX scandal. Faced with the scale of the fraud, regulators around the world have stepped up to the plate, explaining that the sector needs to be more closely supervised.

In Europe, several countries have indicated that they will tighten their regulation, even though the MiCA regulation is already supposed to do so.

"The fall of FTX has had a negative impact on the sector's image and some people want to take advantage of this," explains Faustine Fleuret, president of the Association for the Development of Digital Assets (Adan).

It is in France that things have undoubtedly moved the fastest and furthest with the amendment by Senator Hervé Maurey (UDI) which is due to arrive at the National Assembly on 24 January and is attracting just as much criticism in the ecosystem.

This text provides that all crypto players who have not been registered before 1 October 2023 will have to go straight through the "authorisation" box without going through registration. Oops! A word of clarification though: all those already registered will be able to follow MiCA and comply by 2026.

"We're going to penalise the French ecosystem without providing any real answers to the problem. This text would not have prevented a scandal like FTX," explains Faustine Fleuret.

A difficult step to take?

But beyond the timetable issue, it is the approval itself that raises questions. For many crypto companies will not necessarily have the capacity to clear the hurdle. "It's a real challenge for a lot of players", confirms Nicolas Louvet, the boss of Coinhouse (find out more in his exclusive interview).

What exactly does the authorisation provide for?

There are obviously the constraints relating to registration: reputability of directors and anti-money laundering policy.

But there are also other requirements:

  • Providing financial information about the company: this relates in particular to the identity of shareholders, whether direct or indirect, natural or legal persons, holding at least 10% of the capital or voting rights of the company seeking authorisation.
  • "Contractual" documentation: each NSP must sign a detailed contract with the customer setting out its commercial policy (rates, products, etc.). The contract must also include information on consumer protection and dispute management.
  • Cybersecurity audit: to obtain approval (and keep it!), industry players must undergo an annual audit by a cybersecurity expert approved by the French national agency for information systems security (ANSSI).
  • Equity requirements or insurance: NSPs must have a minimum of €150,000 in equity, as well as a percentage, to be determined, of equity in proportion to assets under management. If they do not have this equity, they can take out professional indemnity insurance.

While the first two conditions do not pose any problems, the last two are much more complicated. Not least for financial reasons 💰

The cybersecurity audit alone costs several tens of thousands of euros a year. Estimates put it at around €30,000. And that's not counting the processes and the qualified people who need to be hired within the company. "

On the equity side, the staircase is also quite high, and not just because a minimum of €150,000 of equity is required. Here too, "you need new skills in-house", explains William O'Rorke.

For those who would like to opt for professional indemnity insurance, the task looks even more complicated as there is no contract of this type. "We're talking to insurers to unblock things, but it's taking time," explains Faustine Fleuret.

According to our information, many insurers are still reluctant to insure crypto companies, not least because of the lack of a market. "It would take several companies in the sector," explains one of them.

Some players such as Coinhouse, which has sufficient equity capital, have nevertheless managed to get insurance. But this remains an exception.

Add to this a deteriorated market context with companies that have seen their business slow down sharply. "The accreditation requirements represent a real financial effort," confirms Jonathan Herscovici, Co-Founder and CEO of StackinSat, which is registered as a PSAN, while making it clear that he had anticipated things. "We've been preparing for accreditation from the start."

An opinion shared by the boss of Bitstack, one of the ecosystem's other flagship start-ups, which is also registered. "This is clearly one of our big issues in 2023", explains its co-founder, Alexandre Roubaud.

All in all, obtaining registration is expected to cost, between the various procedures (legal fees, audits, etc.), several hundred thousand euros.

The risk of a market split in two

Other players not yet registered, such as PSAN, say they fear they will not be able to take the plunge. "It's going to be very complicated", explains one of them. "The risk for us, especially at this time of year, is that we won't be able to put enough money into the product because of regulatory constraints", he adds.

Several players also point to the risk of a fracturing of the market between the "small" and the "big". "Some of them will have absolutely no problem adapting and they'll nibble away at the market while we'll have to chase approval", criticises the boss of a French start-up.

Binance, Cryptocom and the other giants in fact largely have the means and teams to achieve this without too much trouble. "We're working on it", confirms a manager from the largest platform on the planet, while pointing out that "the step to be taken between registration and authorisation is considerable for any crypto player".

Binance's organisation, and in particular its structural opacity, could however cause it some problems.

How will the subject evolve over the coming months? It's hard to say. The AMF explains that crypto-related activities require "strong regulatory requirements".

In the meantime, what is certain is that authorisation could still be much talked about, especially if French MPs decide to speed up its timetable from next week.



Does the regulator have the means to do its job?

Several crypto players are concerned about the slow pace at which registration applications, and tomorrow approval, to become PSANs are being reviewed.

Pose the question to a crypto player, and they will often give you the same answer about PSAN registration:

"I waited over a year."

"My contact person changed several times."

"I didn't hear from them for 4 months."

These delays and difficulties are said to be attributed to the lack of resources at the Autorité des marchés financiers (AMF), which has to manage all the files 📂

For the past year, the regulator has in fact lost some of its staff without the departures being compensated, which is creating some traffic jams.

For its part, the regulator justifies these delays by the fact that some files are incomplete. "There are companies that clearly haven't understood the importance of the process," explains a source close to the Autorité des marchés financiers (AMF).

In its defence, the authority also cites the fact that 60 companies have already been registered, which is significantly more than in other European countries.

However, this argument is not convincing on the side of the Association for the Development of Digital Assets (Adan), where they simply point to the existence of "a significant pool of companies" 🇫🇷.

In the meantime, the risk for France, and other countries, is that some companies, particularly the most dynamic ones, will go and get registered and approved elsewhere, to avoid wasting time.

"We have French clients who are prepared, for example, to go to Luxembourg," says Arnaud Touati, founding partner of Hashtag Avocats.

This edition was prepared with ❤️ by Raphaël Bloch and Grégory Raymond. The Big Whale is a free and independent media. By supporting us, you are contributing to its development.
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