Discover Arbitrum's fundamentals and latest news.

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What is Arbitrum?

Arbitrum (ARB) is a Layer 2 scaling solution for the Ethereum blockchain that enhances scalability, security, and accessibility by processing transactions off-chain using optimistic rollup technology. It reduces congestion, lowers gas fees, and supports seamless integration of Ethereum-based decentralized applications (dApps). The native ARB token facilitates decentralized governance, staking, and transaction fees within the ecosystem.

How is Arbitrum used?

Arbitrum (ARB) is an Ethereum layer-two scaling solution that leverages optimistic rollups to enhance speed, scalability, and cost-efficiency while maintaining Ethereum’s security and compatibility. The ARB token, an ERC-20 governance token, plays a pivotal role in the decentralised governance of the Arbitrum ecosystem. Here are the key ways ARB is used:

  1. Governance Participation: ARB token holders can vote on key proposals that influence the direction and development of Arbitrum, including feature enhancements, protocol upgrades, and the allocation of funds. This ensures community-led decision-making and aligns the platform’s evolution with the collective interests of its users and stakeholders.

  2. Transfer of Value: ARB tokens can be used to transfer value within the Arbitrum ecosystem, facilitating secure and efficient transactions.

  3. Investment: ARB tokens can be held as an investment, providing a means for users to participate in the growth and development of the Arbitrum ecosystem.

  1. Decentralised Governance: The ARB token is used to vote on governance decisions, including the election of members for the Security Council, which oversees the treasury wallet and other critical aspects of the network.

  2. Delegation of Voting Power: ARB token holders can delegate their voting power to other wallets, allowing for more efficient participation in governance decisions.

Overall, the ARB token is integral to the functioning and governance of the Arbitrum ecosystem, enabling users to participate in decision-making processes and shape the future of the platform.

How do I store Arbitrum?

To store Arbitrum (ARB) tokens, you can use a Ledger hardware wallet. Here are the steps to follow:

  1. Get a Ledger Hardware Wallet: Choose a Ledger wallet that suits your needs, such as the Ledger Nano S Plus or Ledger Nano X.

  2. Set Up MetaMask: Create a MetaMask account and add the Arbitrum network to it.

  3. Connect Ledger to MetaMask: Connect your Ledger to MetaMask as a hardware wallet.

  1. Open the ETH App: Open the ETH app on your Ledger and ensure it is connected to MetaMask.

  2. Store ARB Tokens: You can now store your ARB tokens in your ETH account on the Arbitrum network using your Ledger as a hardware wallet.

This setup allows you to securely manage your ARB tokens while leveraging the security features of Ledger and the functionality of MetaMask.

How to buy Arbitrum?

To buy Arbitrum (ARB) tokens, follow these steps:

  1. Choose a Crypto Exchange: Select a reputable cryptocurrency exchange that supports ARB, such as KuCoin, Binance, CoinEx, Kraken, OKX, Bybit,, or MEXC. Each exchange has its unique features, fees, and security measures, so research and compare them before making a decision.

  2. Create an Account: Register a free account on the chosen exchange by providing personal information, including your name and email address. Some exchanges may require additional verification steps, such as KYC (Know Your Customer) for higher withdrawal limits and access to advanced features.

  3. Verify Your Account: Complete any necessary verification steps, such as setting up two-factor authentication and uploading a valid photo ID, to ensure the security of your account.

  1. Add a Payment Method: Link a payment method, such as a credit/debit card or bank account, to your exchange account. This will allow you to deposit funds and buy ARB tokens.

  2. Buy ARB Tokens: Use your deposited funds to purchase ARB tokens. You can do this by placing a market order or a limit order, depending on your desired price and trading strategy.

  3. Store Your ARB Tokens: Once you have purchased ARB tokens, store them securely in a personal crypto wallet or keep them in your exchange account. Consider using a decentralized exchange like Trust Wallet for additional flexibility.

Remember to stay informed about market trends and prices, and always invest responsibly, considering your financial situation and risk tolerance.

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History of Arbitrum

Arbitrum is a Layer 2 scaling solution for the Ethereum blockchain, designed to enhance its scalability and efficiency. It was developed by Offchain Labs, founded by Ed Felten, Steven Goldfeder, and Harry Kalodner, who met at Princeton University. Arbitrum uses optimistic rollup technology to batch transactions, execute them off the main Ethereum chain, and store the confirmation on the main chain, offering faster and cheaper transactions compared to Ethereum.

The Arbitrum token, $ARB, is the native ERC-20 governance token for the Arbitrum blockchain. It was launched in 2023 with an initial supply of 10 billion tokens and a yearly inflation rate of 2%. The token is used for governance decisions, including the allocation of funds and technical changes, and holders can vote on proposals and elect members for the Security Council, which manages Arbitrum’s treasury wallet.

The Arbitrum ecosystem has experienced significant growth, with over 50% year-over-year growth in developer headcount, making it one of the fastest-growing Layer 2 solutions. The network has also shifted to a decentralized autonomous organization (DAO) structure, allowing token holders to participate in governance decisions.

Arbitrum has been designed to address the limitations of Ethereum’s smart contracts, including inefficient performance and high execution costs, which have negatively impacted the Ethereum user experience. The network aims to provide faster transactions, lower fees, and enhanced scalability for the Ethereum community.

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How Arbitrum works

Arbitrum is a Layer 2 scaling solution designed to enhance the capabilities of the Ethereum blockchain. It operates by using Optimistic Rollup (OR) technology, which allows for the batching of transactions off the main Ethereum chain. This method reduces the workload on the Ethereum mainnet by executing a combined batch of transactions off-chain and only sending the final state to the main chain for confirmation.

Key Components
  1. Virtual Machine (VM): At the core of Arbitrum's architecture is its Virtual Machine (VM), which runs smart contracts. The VM is a set of programs that execute the rules of the smart contract.

  2. Managers: A set of managers is designated by the VM's designer. These managers are incentivized to ensure the VM behaves according to its code. They can force the VM to behave correctly, and verifiers only need to keep track of the hash of the VM's state, not the entire state.

  3. Verifiers: Verifiers accept any state modification supported by all managers. If managers disagree, the verifiers use a bisection technique to resolve the dispute, ensuring the integrity of the network.

  1. Keys: Keys are used to sign transactions, ensuring their validity and security.
How It Works
  1. Transaction Execution: Transactions are executed off-chain on the Arbitrum network, reducing the load on the Ethereum mainnet.

  2. Batching and Confirmation: Transactions are batched together and executed off-chain. The final state is then sent to the Ethereum main chain for confirmation, inheriting Ethereum's security.

  3. Dispute Resolution: If a dispute arises, the bisection protocol is used to resolve it. Managers provide proof of the correct execution, ensuring the integrity of the network.

  1. Scalability: Arbitrum significantly increases transaction throughput and reduces fees compared to the Ethereum mainnet.

  2. Security: Arbitrum inherits Ethereum's security, ensuring the integrity of transactions and smart contracts.

  3. Governance: The ARB token allows holders to participate in governance decisions, ensuring a democratic and community-driven approach to the network's evolution.

ARB Token

The ARB token is the native ERC-20 governance token for the Arbitrum blockchain. It serves multiple key functions:

  1. Governance Voting: Token holders can participate in governance voting, impacting decisions on fund allocation, ecosystem investments, and technical changes.

  2. Security Council Elections: Token holders can vote on electing members of the Security Council, which manages the Arbitrum ecosystem's treasury wallet.

  3. Transfer of Value: The ARB token can be used to transfer value within the Arbitrum ecosystem.


The initial supply of ARB tokens is set at 10 billion, with a maximum annual inflation rate of 2%. The distribution of tokens includes allocations to investors, DAOs, individual wallets, the DAO treasury, and the team.

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Arbitrum's strengths

Arbitrum (ARB) has several strengths that contribute to its success and popularity:

  1. DAO Governance Structure: Arbitrum heavily emphasizes decentralization, distributing a significant degree of influence over the network to the DAO. This ensures that the platform remains decentralized and community-driven.

  2. Community Orientation: Arbitrum has a loyal and active community, which is crucial for the project's viability and sustainability. The community is well-versed in Web3 and has a strong stake in the project's success, contributing to its growth and stability.

  3. First Mover Advantage: As the first layer 2/rollup to launch on mainnet in August 2021, Arbitrum has established a strong foundation of members, tooling, and influence over the narrative within the scaling sector. This first-mover advantage allows it to set the standard for other projects.

  1. Sequencer Decentralization: Arbitrum has made significant strides in decentralizing its sequencer, enhancing the security and trustworthiness of the platform.

  2. High EVM Compatibility: Arbitrum is compatible with the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM), making it easy for developers to transition their Ethereum-based projects to Arbitrum without significant code changes.

  3. Optimistic Roll-Up Technology: Arbitrum's optimistic roll-up technology allows for faster transactions while maintaining security. Transactions are optimistically verified and only resolved in the event of a dispute, making the process more efficient.

  1. Ease of Integration: Arbitrum supports two-way asset transfers between Ethereum and Arbitrum, making it easy to integrate with existing Ethereum-based projects.

  2. Open Source: Arbitrum is open source, allowing anyone to contribute to the project and collaborate on its development. This fosters a community-driven approach to improvement and error correction.

  3. Rich Development Tools: Arbitrum can leverage many of Ethereum's existing tools and libraries, making it easier for developers to work on the platform.

  1. Low Transaction Fees: Arbitrum's sidechain architecture reduces the load on the Ethereum chain, resulting in lower transaction fees for users.

These strengths collectively contribute to Arbitrum's position as a leading layer 2 solution for Ethereum, offering a robust and scalable platform for decentralized applications.

Arbitrum's risks

Arbitrum (ARB) faces several risks, primarily related to its governance and decentralization. Key risks include:

  1. Security Council Risks: The Security Council, composed of 12 elected members, can compromise the system if 9 members behave maliciously. This could put users' funds at risk. Additionally, if 7 members are compromised, the system's safety could be compromised, allowing malicious proposals to be executed.

  2. Decentralization Concerns: Despite having a DAO for governance, the Security Council's structure raises concerns about the level of decentralization. The reliance on a small group of members for emergency actions can be seen as a single point of failure.

  3. Software Bugs: As with any complex software, there is a risk of undiscovered vulnerabilities in the Arbitrum protocol. These bugs could put user funds at risk, although the developers, Offchain Labs, continuously audit and test the code to minimize this risk.

  1. Scams: As a permissionless platform, Arbitrum is susceptible to scams, similar to Ethereum. Users must be cautious when interacting with contracts on Arbitrum, ensuring they trust the application's security.

These risks highlight the importance of careful consideration before investing in or using the Arbitrum network.

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Did Arbitrum raise funds?

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Arbitrum’s team

  • Steven Goldfeder: Co-founder and researcher at Princeton University. He is also a key player in the development of Arbitrum and has been involved in discussions about the project's governance and scaling solutions.
  • Harry Kalodner: Co-founder and researcher at Princeton University. He has been actively engaged with the community, answering questions and providing updates on the project's development and future plans.
  • Joshua Goldfeder: Co-founder and software engineer who previously worked at Google. He has contributed to the development of Arbitrum and has been involved in the project's growth.
  • Ed Felten: Co-founder and professor at Princeton University. He has been involved in the development of Arbitrum and has provided guidance on the project's technical aspects.
  • Other Team Members: The team includes several other members, such as dzack23, fredlacs, theskunkmaster, plasmapower, Inevitable-Pea-1113, and SonderDev, who have contributed to the development and growth of Arbitrum.

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